Iadarola S, Levato L, Harrison B, et al. Teaching Parents Behavioral Strategies for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Effects on Stress, Strain, and Competence. J Autism Dev Disord. 2018;48(4):1031-1040. doi:10.1007/s10803-017-3339-2

Marie K. Krug et al, Proactive control in adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorder: Unimpaired but associated with symptoms of depression., Journal of Abnormal Psychology (2020). DOI: 10.1037/abn0000527

Moskowitz LJ, Walsh CE, Mulder E, et al. Intervention for Anxiety and Problem Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability. J Autism Dev Disord. 2017;47(12):3930-3948. doi:10.1007/s10803-017-3070-z

BIOMARKERS | Back to Index

Al-Gadani Y, El-Ansary A, Attas O, Al-Ayadhi L. Metabolic biomarkers related to oxidative stress and antioxidant status in Saudi autistic children. Clin Biochem. 2009 Jul;42(10-11):1032-40

Buie T, Campbell DB, Fuchs GJ 3rd, et al. Evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in individuals with ASDs: a consensus report. Pediatrics. 2010;125 Suppl 1:S1-S18. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-1878C

Cederlöf M, Larsson H, Lichtenstein P, Almqvist C, Serlachius E, Ludvigsson JF. Nationwide population-based cohort study of psychiatric disorders in individuals with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome or hypermobility syndrome and their siblings. BMC Psychiatry. 2016;16:207. Published 2016 Jul 4. doi:10.1186/s12888-016-0922-6

Coe BP, Stessman HAF, Sulovari A, et al. Neurodevelopmental disease genes implicated by de novo mutation and copy number variation morbidity. Nat Genet. 2019;51(1):106-116. doi:10.1038/s41588-018-0288-4

Courchesne E, Pramparo T, Gazestani VH, Lombardo MV, Pierce K, Lewis NE. The ASD Living Biology: from cell proliferation to clinical phenotype. Mol Psychiatry. 2019;24(1):88-107. doi:10.1038/s41380-018-0056-y

Faber S, Zinn GM, Kern Ii JC, Skip Kingston HM. The plasma zinc/serum copper ratio as a biomarker in children with autism spectrum disorders. Biomarkers. 2009 Mar 11:1-10

Frye RE, Slattery JC, Quadros EV. Folate metabolism abnormalities in autism: potential biomarkers. Biomark Med. 2017;11(8):687-699. doi:10.2217/bmm-2017-0109

Frye RE, Vassall S, Kaur G, Lewis C, Karim M, Rossignol D. Emerging biomarkers in autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review. Ann Transl Med. 2019;7(23):792. doi:10.21037/atm.2019.11.53

Howsmon DP, Adams JB, Kruger U, Geis E, Gehn E, Hahn J. Erythrocyte fatty acid profiles in children are not predictive of autism spectrum disorder status: a case control study. Biomark Res. 2018;6:12. Published 2018 Mar 14. doi:10.1186/s40364-018-0125-z

James SJ, Cutler P, Melnyk S, Jernigan S, Janak L, Gaylor DW, Neubrander JA. Metabolic biomarkers of increased oxidative stress and impaired methylation capacity in children with autism. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec;80(6):1611-7.

Oztan O, Garner JP, Constantino JN, Parker KJ. Neonatal CSF vasopressin concentration predicts later medical record diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020;117(19):10609-10613. doi:10.1073/pnas.1919050117

Parker KJ, Garner JP, Oztan O, et al. Arginine vasopressin in cerebrospinal fluid is a marker of sociality in nonhuman primates. Sci Transl Med. 2018;10(439):eaam9100. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.aam9100

Parker KJ, Oztan O, Libove RA, et al. Intranasal oxytocin treatment for social deficits and biomarkers of response in children with autism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114(30):8119-8124. doi:10.1073/pnas.1705521114

Pastural E, et al. Novel plasma phospholipid biomarkers of autism: Mitochondrial dysfunction as a putative causative mechanism. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2009 Oct;81(4):253-64.

Ramirez-Celis A, Edmiston E, Schauer J, Vu T, Van de Water J. Peptides of neuron specific enolase as potential ASD biomarkers: From discovery to epitope mapping. Brain Behav Immun. 2020;84:200-208. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2019.12.002

Ratajczak HV. Theoretical aspects of autism: biomarkers–a review. J Immunotoxicol. 2011;8(1):80-94. doi:10.3109/1547691X.2010.538749

Shen MD, Nordahl CW, Li DD, et al. Extra-axial cerebrospinal fluid in high-risk and normal-risk children with autism aged 2-4 years: a case-control study. Lancet Psychiatry. 2018;5(11):895-904. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(18)30294-3

Sigmon ER, Kelleman M, Susi A, Nylund CM, Oster ME. Congenital Heart Disease and Autism: A Case-Control Study. Pediatrics. 2019;144(5):e20184114. doi:10.1542/peds.2018-4114

Vargason T, Grivas G, Hollowood-Jones KL, Hahn J. Towards a Multivariate Biomarker-Based Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder: Review and Discussion of Recent Advancements. Semin Pediatr Neurol. 2020;34:100803. doi:10.1016/j.spen.2020.100803

Yap IK, Angley M, Veselkov KA, Holmes E, Lindon JC, Nicholson JK. Urinary Metabolic Phenotyping Differentiates Children with Autism from Their Unaffected Siblings and Age-Matched Controls. J Proteome Res. 2010 May 13.


Casanova EL, Sharp JL, Edelson SM, Kelly DP, Casanova MF. A Cohort Study Comparing Women with Autism Spectrum Disorder with and without Generalized Joint Hypermobility. Behav Sci (Basel). 2018;8(3):35. Published 2018 Mar 17. doi:10.3390/bs8030035

Casanova EL, Sharp JL, Edelson SM, Kelly DP, Estate SM, Casanova FM. Immune, Autonomic, and Endocrine Dysregulation in Autism and Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome/Hypermobility Spectrum Disorders Versus Unaffected Controls. Cold Spring Harb Lab. 2019;13(6). doi:10.1101/670661

Celia T, Freysteinson WW, Frye RE. Concurrent Medical Conditions in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Pediatr Nurs. 2016;42(5):230-234.

Frye RE, Rossignol DA. Identification and Treatment of Pathophysiological Comorbidities of Autism Spectrum Disorder to Achieve Optimal Outcomes. Clin Med Insights Pediatr. 2016;10:43-56. Published 2016 Jun 15. doi:10.4137/CMPed.S38337

Hendren RL, Haft SL, Black JM, White NC, Hoeft F. Recognizing Psychiatric Comorbidity With Reading Disorders. Front Psychiatry. 2018;9:101. Published 2018 Mar 27. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00101

Vargason T, Frye RE, McGuinness DL, Hahn J. Clustering of co-occurring conditions in autism spectrum disorder during early childhood: A retrospective analysis of medical claims data. Autism Res. 2019;12(8):1272-1285. doi:10.1002/aur.2128


Estes A, Munson J, Rogers SJ, Greenson J, Winter J, Dawson G. Long-Term Outcomes of Early Intervention in 6-Year-Old Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2015;54(7):580-587. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2015.04.005

Gengoux GW, Abrams DA, Schuck R, et al. A Pivotal Response Treatment Package for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: An RCT. Pediatrics. 2019;144(3):e20190178. doi:10.1542/peds.2019-0178

Green J, Charman T, Pickles A, et al. Parent-mediated intervention versus no intervention for infants at high risk of autism: a parallel, single-blind, randomised trial. Lancet Psychiatry. 2015;2(2):133-140. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(14)00091-1

Green J, Pickles A, Pasco G, et al. Randomised trial of a parent-mediated intervention for infants at high risk for autism: longitudinal outcomes to age 3 years. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2017;58(12):1330-1340. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12728

Kerns CM, Moskowitz LJ, Rosen T, et al. A Multisite, Multidisciplinary Delphi Consensus Study Describing “Usual Care” Intervention Strategies for School-Age to Transition-Age Youth With Autism. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2019;48(sup1):S247-S268. doi:10.1080/15374416.2017.1410826

Nahmias AS, Pellecchia M, Stahmer AC, Mandell DS. Effectiveness of community-based early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder: a meta-analysis. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2019;60(11):1200-1209. doi:10.1111/jcpp.13073

Provenzani U, Fusar-Poli L, Brondino N, et al. What are we targeting when we treat autism spectrum disorder? A systematic review of 406 clinical trials. Autism. 2020;24(2):274-284. doi:10.1177/1362361319854641

Rogers SJ, Estes A, Lord C, et al. A Multisite Randomized Controlled Two-Phase Trial of the Early Start Denver Model Compared to Treatment as Usual. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2019;58(9):853-865. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2019.01.004

Zwaigenbaum L, Bauman ML, Choueiri R, et al. Early Intervention for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Under 3 Years of Age: Recommendations for Practice and Research. Pediatrics. 2015;136 Suppl 1:S60-S81. doi:10.1542/peds.2014-3667E

EDUCATION | Back to Index

Bent S, Wahlberg J, Chen Y, Widjaja F, McDonald MG, Hendren RL. Quality of Life Among School-Age Children With Autism: The Oak Hill School Outcomes Study. Semin Pediatr Neurol. 2020;34:100808. doi:10.1016/j.spen.2020.100808


Dang K, Bent S, Lawton B, et al. Integrating Autism Care through a School-Based Intervention Model: A Pilot Study. J Clin Med. 2017;6(10):97. Published 2017 Oct 19. doi:10.3390/jcm6100097


Kim SH, Bal VH, Lord C. Longitudinal follow-up of academic achievement in children with autism from age 2 to 18. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2018;59(3):258-267. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12808


Morgan L, Hooker JL, Sparapani N, Reinhardt VP, Schatschneider C, Wetherby AM. Cluster randomized trial of the classroom SCERTS intervention for elementary students with autism spectrum disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2018;86(7):631-644. doi:10.1037/ccp0000314


Nuske HJ, McGhee Hassrick E, Bronstein B, et al. Broken bridges-new school transitions for students with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review on difficulties and strategies for success. Autism. 2019;23(2):306-325. doi:10.1177/1362361318754529

EMPLOYMENT | Back to Index

Cimera RE. Utilizing Co-Worders as “Natural Supports”: Evidence on Cost Efficiency, Job Retention, and Other Employment Outcomes. Sage OPEN Med. 2001; 1(5) doi: 10.1177/104420730101100401

Cimera RE. National cost efficiency of supported employees with intellectual disabilities: 2002 to 2007. Am J Intellect Dev Disabil. 2010;115(1):19-29. doi:10.1352/1944-7558-115.1.19

Estrada-Hernández N, Wadsworth JK,, Nietupski JA, Warth J, Winslow. employment or economic success: the experience of individuals with disabilities in transition from school to work. J Employ Couns. 2011; 23(12). doi: 10.1002/j.2161-1920.2008.tb00040.x

García-Villamisar D, Hughes C. Supported employment improves cognitive performance in adults with Autism. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2007;51(Pt 2):142-150. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2788.2006.00854.x

Hagner D, Bernard CF. “I Do That For Everybody”: Supervising Employees With Autism. Sage OPEN Med. 2005; 1(5) doi: 10.1177/10883576050200020501

Howlin P, Alcock J, Burkin C. An 8 year follow-up of a specialist supported employment service for high-ability adults with autism or Asperger syndrome. Autism. 2005;9(5):533-549. doi:10.1177/1362361305057871

Lawer L, Brusilovskiy E, Salzer MS, Mandell DS. Use of vocational rehabilitative services among adults with autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2009;39(3):487-494. doi:10.1007/s10803-008-0649-4

Mawhood L, Howlin P. The Outcome of a Supported Employment Scheme for High-Functioning Adults with Autism or Asperger Syndrome. Sage OPEN Med. 1999; 9(1). doi: 10.1177/1362361399003003003

Stephens DL, Collins MD, Dodder RA. A longitudinal study of employment and skill acquisition among individuals with developmental disabilities. Res Dev Disabil. 2005;26(5):469-486. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2003.12.003

Shattuck PT, Narendorf SC, Cooper B, Sterzing PR, Wagner M, Taylor JL. Postsecondary Education and Employment Among Youth With an Autism Spectrum Disorder. Ped. 2012; 6. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-2864

Simonsen ML, Neubert DA. Transitioning Youth With Intellectual and Other Developmental Disabilities: Predicting Community Employment Outcomes. Sage OPEN Med. 2012; 27(12). doi: 10.1177/2165143412469399

Shaller J, Yang NK. Competitive Employment for People with Autism: Correlates of Successful Closure in Competitive and Supported Employment. Rehab Couns Bull. 2005.

Taylor JL, Seltzer MM. Employment and Post-Secondary Educational Activities for Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders During the Transition to Adulthood. J Autism Dev Discord. 2012; 1(5) doi: 10.1007/s10803-010-1070-3

ENVIRONMENT | Back to Index

Adams J, Howsmon DP, Kruger U, et al. Significant Association of Urinary Toxic Metals and Autism-Related Symptoms-A Nonlinear Statistical Analysis with Cross Validation. PLoS One. 2017;12(1):e0169526. Published 2017 Jan 9. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0169526

Bello SC. Autism and environmental influences: review and commentary. Rev Environ Health 2007: 22(2): 139-56

Bilbo SD, Block CL, Bolton JL, Hanamsagar R, Tran PK. Beyond infection – Maternal immune activation by environmental factors, microglial development, and relevance for autism spectrum disorders. Exp Neurol. 2018;299(Pt A):241-251. doi:10.1016/j.expneurol.2017.07.002

Bouchard MF, Bellinger DC, Wright RO, Weisskopf MG. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and urinary metabolites of organophosphate pesticides. Pediatrics. 2010 Jun;125(6):e1270-7

Curtis JT, Hood AN, Chen Y, Cobb GP, Wallace DR. Chronic metals ingestion by prairie voles produces sex-specific deficits in social behavior: an animal model of autism. Behav Brain Res. 2010 Nov 12;213(1):42-9

DeSoto MC, Hitlan RT. Sorting out the spinning of autism: heavy metals and the question of incidence. Acta Neurobiol Exp 2010, 70: 165

Deth R, et al. How environmental and genetic factors combine to cause autism: A redox/methylation hypothesis. Neurotoxicology 2008: 29(1): 190-201

Grandjean P, Landrigan PJ. Developmental neurotoxicity of industrial chemicals. Lancet. 2006 Dec 16;368(9553):2167-78

Hallmayer J, et al. Genetic Heritability and Shared Environmental Factors Among Twin Pairs With Autism. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011 Jul 4

Herbert MR. Contributions of the environment and environmentally vulnerable physiology to autism spectrum disorders. Curr Opin Neurol. 2010 Apr;23(2):103-10

Herbstman JB, et al. Prenatal exposure to PBDEs and neurodevelopment. Environ Health Perspect. 2010 May;118(5):712-9

Herbert MR, Russo JP, Yang S et al. Autism and environmental genomics. Neurotoxicology 2006; 27(5):671-84

Herr CE, et al. Air pollution exposure during critical time periods in gestation and alterations in cord blood lymphocyte distribution: a cohort of livebirths. Environ Health. 2010 Aug 2;9:46

Herr CE, et al. Exposure to air pollution in critical prenatal time windows and IgE levels in newborns. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2011 Feb;22(1 Pt 1):75-84

Hertz-Picciotto I, Schmidt RJ, Walker CK, et al. A Prospective Study of Environmental Exposures and Early Biomarkers in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Design, Protocols, and Preliminary Data from the MARBLES Study. Environ Health Perspect. 2018;126(11):117004. doi:10.1289/EHP535

Hewitson L, Lopresti B, Stott C, Mason NS, Tomko J. Influence of pediatric vaccines on amygdala growth and opioid ligand binding in rhesus macaque infants: A pilot study. Acta Neurobiol Exp 2010, 70: 147–164

Kalkbrenner AE, Daniels JL, Chen JC, Poole C, Emch M, Morrissey J. Perinatal Exposure to Hazardous Air Pollutants and Autism Spectrum Disorders at Age 8. Epidemiology. 2010 Jun 17

Kempuraj D, Asadi S, Zhang B, Manola A, Hogan J, Peterson E, Theoharides TC. Mercury induces inflammatory mediator release from human mast cells. J Neuroinflammation. 2010 Mar 11;7:20

Kinney DK, Barch DH, Chayka B, Napoleon S, Munir KM. Environmental risk factors for autism: do they help cause de novo genetic mutations that contribute to the disorder? Med Hypotheses. 2010 Jan;74(1):102-6

Kinney DK, Miller AM, et al. Autism prevalence following prenatal exposure to hurricanes and tropical storms in Louisiana. J Autism Dev Disord 2008: 38(3): 481-8

Kubota T. Epigenetics in congenital diseases and pervasive developmental disorders. Environ Health Prev Med. 2008 Jan;13(1):3-7

Landrigan PJ. What causes autism? Exploring the environmental contribution. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2010 Apr;22(2):219-25

Lanphear BP, et al. Low-level environmental lead exposure and children’s intellectual function: an international pooled analysis. Environ Health Perspect. 2005 Jul;113(7):894-9

Magalhães ES, et al. Immune allergic response in Asperger syndrome. J Neuroimmunol. 2009 Nov 30;216(1-2):108-12

Majewska MD, Urbanowicz E, Rok-Bujko P, Namysowska I, Mierzejewski P. Age-dependent lower or higher levels of hair mercury in autistic children than in healthy controls. Acta Neurobiol Exp 2010, 70: 196–208

McDonald ME, Paul JF. Timing of increased autistic disorder cumulative incidence. Environ Sci Technol. 2010 Mar 15;44(6):2112-8

Nataf R, Skorupka C, Amet L, Lam A, Springbett A, Lathe R. Porphyrinuria in childhood autistic disorder: implications for environmental toxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006 Jul 15;214(2):99-108

Palmer RF, Blanchard S, Stein Z, Mandell D, Miller C. Environmental mercury release, special education rates, and autism disorder: an ecological study of Texas. Health Place. 2006 Jun;12(2):203-9

Palmer RF, Blanchard S, Wood R. Proximity to point sources of environmental mercury release as a predictor of autism prevalence. Health Place. 2008 Feb 12

Qureshi F, Adams J, Coleman D, Quig D, Hahn J. Urinary Essential Elements of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and their Mothers. Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2020;72:101518. doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2020.101518

Rea WJ, Didriksen N, Simon TR, Pan Y, Fenyves EJ, Griffiths B. Effects of toxic exposure to molds and mycotoxins in building-related illnesses. Arch Environ Health. 2003 Jul;58(7):399-405

Shaw W. Increased urinary excretion of a 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropionic acid (HPHPA), an abnormal phenylalanine metabolite of Clostridia spp. in the gastrointestinal tract, in urine samples from patients with autism and schizophrenia. Nutr Neurosci. 2010 Jun;13(3):135-43

Windham G, Zhang L, Gunier R, Croen L, Grether J. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Relation to Distribution of Hazardous Air Pollutants in the San Francisco Bay Area. Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Sep;114(9):1438-44

Woods JS. Altered porphyrin metabolism as a biomarker of mercury exposure and toxicity. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1996. 74(2)

Yorbik O, Kurt I, Haşimi A, Oztürk O. Chromium, cadmium, and lead levels in urine of children with autism and typically developing controls. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2010 Jun;135(1-3):10-5


Adams JB, Johansen LJ, Powell LD, Quig D, Rubin RA. Gastrointestinal flora and gastrointestinal status in children with autism–comparisons to typical children and correlation with autism severity. BMC Gastroenterol. 2011 Mar 16;11:22.

Afzal N, et al. Constipation with acquired megarectum in children with autism. Pediatrics. 2003 Oct;112(4):939-42.

Arvilommi H, Isolauri E.Kalliomäki M, Poussa T, Salminen S. Probiotics and prevention of atopic disease: 4-year follow-up of a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2003 361(9372):1869-71.

Ashwood P et al. Intestinal lymphocyte populations in children with regressive autism: evidence for extensive mucosal immunopathology. J Clin Immunol. 2003 Nov;23(6):504-17.

Ashwood P, Wakefield AJ. Immune activation of peripheral blood and mucosal CD3+ lymphocyte cytokine profiles in children with autism and gastrointestinal symptoms. J Neuroimmunol. 2006 Apr;173(1-2):126-34.

Balzola F, Barbon V, Repici A, Rizzetto M. Panenteric IBD-like disease in a patient with regressive autism shown for the first time by the wireless capsule enteroscopy: another piece in the jigsaw of this gut-brain syndrome? Am J Gastro. 2005; 979-981.

Balzola F, et al. Autistic enterocolitis: confirmation of a new inflammatory bowel disease in an Italian cohort of patients. Gastroenterology. 2005;128:Suppl.2;A-303.

Balzola F, et al. Beneficial behavioural effects of IBD therapy and gluten/casein-free diet in an Italian cohort of patients with autistic enterocolitis followed over one year. Gastroenterology, April 2006 Vol 130 Number 4 suppl. 2 S1364 A-21.

Bercik P, et al. The intestinal microbiota affect central levels of brain-derived neurotropic factor and behavior in mice. Gastroenterology. 2011 Aug;141(2):599-609.e3.

Billoo AG, Memon MA, Khaskheli SA, et al. Role of probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii in management and prevention of diarrhea. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:4557-4560.

Buie T, et al. Evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in individuals with ASDs: a consensus report. Pediatrics. 2010 Jan;125 Suppl 1:S1-18.

Buie T, Fuchs GJ 3rd, Furuta GT, Kooros K, Levy J, Lewis JD, Wershil BK, Winter H. Recommendations for evaluation and treatment of common gastrointestinal problems in children with ASDs. Pediatrics. 2010 Jan;125 Suppl 1:S19-29.

Buts JP, De Keyser N. Effects of Saccharomyces boulardii on intestinal mucosa. Dig Dis Sci. 2006 Aug;51(8):1485-92.

Cade R, et al. Autism and schizophrenia: intestinal disorders. Nutritional Neuroscience 3: 57-72, 2000.

Cade JR, et al. Autism and schizophrenia linked to malfunctioning enzyme for milk protein digestion. Autism, Mar 1999.

Chen B, Girgis S, El-Matary W. Childhood autism and eosinophilic colitis. Digestion. 2010;81(2):127-9.

Critchfield JW, van Hemert S, Ash M, Mulder L, Ashwood P. The potential role of probiotics in the management of childhood autism spectrum disorders. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2011;2011:161358.

DeFelice ML, et al. Intestinal cytokines in children with pervasive developmental disorders. Am J Gastroenterol 98(8): 1777-82: 2003.

de Magistris L, et al. Alterations of the Intestinal Barrier in Patients With Autism Spectrum Disorders and in Their First-degree Relatives. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2010 Jul 28.

del Giudice MM, Brunese FP. Probiotics, prebiotics, and allergy in children: what’s new in the last year? J Clin Gastroenterol. 2008 Sep;42 Suppl 3 Pt 2:S205-8.

D’Eufemia P, et al. Abnormal intestinal permeability in children with autism. Acta Paediatr. 1996 Sep;85(9):1076-9.

Fedorak RN, Madsen KL. Probiotics and the management of inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2004 May;10(3):286.

Ferguson BJ, Dovgan K, Severns D, et al. Lack of Associations Between Dietary Intake and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Front Psychiatry. 2019;10:528. Published 2019 Jul 25. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00528

Ferguson BJ, Dovgan K, Takahashi N, Beversdorf DQ. The Relationship Among Gastrointestinal Symptoms, Problem Behaviors, and Internalizing Symptoms in Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Front Psychiatry. 2019;10:194. Published 2019 Apr 9. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00194

Ferguson BJ, Marler S, Altstein LL, et al. Associations between cytokines, endocrine stress response, and gastrointestinal symptoms in autism spectrum disorder. Brain Behav Immun. 2016;58:57-62. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2016.05.009

Finegold SM, Dowd SE, Gontcharova V, Liu C, Henley KE, Wolcott RD, Youn E, Summanen PH, Granpeesheh D, Dixon D, Liu M, Molitoris DR, Green JA 3rd. Pyrosequencing study of fecal microflora of autistic and control children. Anaerobe. 2010 Jul 8.

Finegold SM. State of the art; microbiology in health and disease. Intestinal bacterial flora in autism. Anaerobe. 2011 Dec;17(6):367.

Furlano RI, et al. Colonic CD8 and gamma delta T-cell infiltration with epithelial damage in children with autism. J Pediatr. 2001 Mar;138(3):366-72.

Galiatsatos P, et al. Autistic enterocolitis: fact or fiction? Can J Gastroenterol 2009;23(2):95-98.

Genuis SJ, Bouchard TP. Celiac Disease Presenting as Autism. J Child Neurol. 2009 Jun 29.

Gonzalez L, Lopez K, Navarro D, Negron L, Flores L, Rodriguez R, Martinez M, Sabra A. Endoscopic and Histological Characteristics of the digestive mucosa in autistic children with gastrointestinal symptoms. Arch Venez Pueric Pediatr 69;1:19-25

Hassall E. Decisions in diagnosing and managing chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease in children. J Pediatr. 2005 Mar;146(3 Suppl):S3-12.

Heijtz RD, Wang S, Anuar F, Qian Y, Björkholm B, Samuelsson A, Hibberd ML, Forssberg H, Pettersson S. Normal gut microbiota modulates brain development and behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Feb 15;108(7):3047-52.

Horvath K et al. Gastrointestinal abnormalities in children with autistic disorder. J Pediatr. 1999 Nov;135(5):559-63.

Horvath K, Perman JA. Autism and gastrointestinal symptoms. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2002 Jun;4(3):251-8.

Horvath K, Perman JA. Autistic disorder and gastrointestinal disease. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2002 Oct;14(5):583-7.

Iacono G et al. Intolerance of cow’s milk and chronic constipation in children. N Engl J Med. 1998 Oct 15;339(16):1100-4.

Işeri SO, Sener G, Sağlam B, Gedik N, Ercan F, Yeğen BC. Oxytocin ameliorates oxidative colonic inflammation by a neutrophil-dependent mechanism. Peptides. 2005 Mar;26(3):483-91.

Kawashima H et al. Detection and sequencing of measles virus from peripheral mononuclear cells from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and autism. Dig Dis Sci. 2000 Apr;45(4):723-9.

Kazek B, et al. Platelet and intestinal 5-HT2A receptor mRNA in autistic spectrum disorders – results of a pilot study. Acta Neurobiol Exp 2010, 70: 232–238.

Koch TR, et al. Induction of enlarged intestinal lymphoid aggregates during acute glutathione depletion in a murine model. Dig Dis Sci 2000. 45(11): 2115-21.

Kuddo T, Nelson KB. How common are gastrointestinal disorders in children with autism. Curr Opin Pediatr 2003: 15(3); 339-343.

Kushak RI, Buie TM, Murray KF, et al. Evaluation of Intestinal Function in Children With Autism and Gastrointestinal Symptoms. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2016;62(5):687-691. doi:10.1097/MPG.0000000000001174

Kushak RI, Lauwers GY, Winter HS, Buie TM. Intestinal disaccharidase activity in patients with autism: Effect of age, gender, and intestinal inflammation. Autism. 2011 Mar 17.

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Macdonald A. Omega-3 fatty acids as adjunctive therapy in Crohn’s disease. Gastroenterol Nurs. 2006 Jul-Aug;29(4):295-301.

Margolis KG, Buie TM, Turner JB, et al. Development of a Brief Parent-Report Screen for Common Gastrointestinal Disorders in Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019;49(1):349-362. doi:10.1007/s10803-018-3767-7

McGinnis WR. Mercury and autistic gut disease. Environ Health Perspect. 2001 Jul;109(7):A303-4.

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IMMUNE SYSTEM | Back to Index

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METABOLISM | Back to Index

Abraham JR, Barnard J, Wang H, et al. Proteomic investigations of human HERC2 mutants: Insights into the pathobiology of a neurodevelopmental disorder. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2019;512(2):421-427. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2019.02.149

Abraham JR, Szoko N, Barnard J, et al. Proteomic Investigations of Autism Brain Identify Known and Novel Pathogenetic Processes. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):13118. Published 2019 Sep 11. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-49533-y

Ames JL, Windham GC, Lyall K, et al. Neonatal Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Subsequent Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability. Autism Res. 2020;13(3):444-455. doi:10.1002/aur.2247

Burger BJ, Rose S, Bennuri SC, et al. Autistic Siblings with Novel Mutations in Two Different Genes: Insight for Genetic Workups of Autistic Siblings and Connection to Mitochondrial Dysfunction. Front Pediatr. 2017;5:219. Published 2017 Oct 12. doi:10.3389/fped.2017.00219

Chugani DC, Sundram BS, Behen M, Lee ML, Moore GJ. Evidence of altered energy metabolism in autistic children. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1999 May;23(4):635-41.

Delhey LM, Tippett M, Rose S, et al. Comparison of Treatment for Metabolic Disorders Associated with Autism:Reanalysis of Three Clinical Trials. Front Neurosci. 2018;12:19. Published 2018 Feb 12. doi:10.3389/fnins.2018.00019

Ehrhart J, Zeevalk GD. Cooperative interaction between ascorbate and glutathione during mitochondrial impairment in mesencephalic cultures. J Neurochem 2003 86(6):1487-97.

Fernandez-Checa JC et al. Oxidative stress: role of mitochondria and protection by glutathione. Biofactors. 1998;8(1-2):7-11.

Filipek PA, Juranek J, et al. Relative carnitine deficiency in autism. J Autism Dev Disord 34(6): 615-23, 2004.

Filipek PA, et al. Mitochondrial dysfunction in autistic patients with 15q inverted duplication. Ann Neurol 53(6): 801-4, 2003.

Fillano JJ, Goldenthal MJ, et al. Mitochondrial dysfunction in patients with hypotonia, epilepsy, autism, and developmental delay: HEADD syndrome. J Child Neurol 17(6): 435-9., 2002.

Frye RE, Cox D, Slattery J, et al. Mitochondrial Dysfunction may explain symptom variation in Phelan-McDermid Syndrome. Sci Rep. 2016;6:19544. Published 2016 Jan 29. doi:10.1038/srep19544

Frye RE, Delhey L, Slattery J, et al. Blocking and Binding Folate Receptor Alpha Autoantibodies Identify Novel Autism Spectrum Disorder Subgroups. Front Neurosci. 2016;10:80. Published 2016 Mar 9. doi:10.3389/fnins.2016.00080

Frye RE, Nankova B, Bhattacharyya S, Rose S, Bennuri SC, MacFabe DF. Modulation of Immunological Pathways in Autistic and Neurotypical Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines by the Enteric Microbiome Metabolite Propionic Acid. Front Immunol. 2017;8:1670. Published 2017 Dec 22. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2017.01670

Frye RE, Rossignol DA. Mitochondrial dysfunction can connect the diverse medical symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatr Res. 2011 Feb 1.

Gargus JJ, Imtiaz F. Mitochondrial energy-deficient endophenotype in autism. Am J Biochem Biotechnol 4(2): 198-207, 2008.

Giulivi C, et al. Mitochondrial dysfunction in autism. JAMA. 2010 Dec 1;304(21):2389-96.

Hollowood K, Melnyk S, Pavliv O, et al. Maternal metabolic profile predicts high or low risk of an autism pregnancy outcome. Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2018;56:72-82. doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2018.09.003

Holtzman D. Autistic spectrum disorders and mitochondrial encephalopathies. Acta Paediatr. 2008 Jul;97(7):859-60.

Kidd PM. Neurodegeneration from mitochondrial insufficiency: nutrients, stem cells, growth factors, and prospects for brain rebuilding using integrative management. Altern Med Rev. 2005 Dec;10(4):268-93.

Naviaux RK. Antipurinergic therapy for autism-An in-depth review. Mitochondrion. 2018;43:1-15. doi:10.1016/j.mito.2017.12.007

Melnyk S, Fuchs GJ, Schulz E, Lopez M, et al. Metabolic imbalance associated with methylation dysregulation and oxidative damage in children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2012 Mar;42(3):367-77.

Oliveira G, Ataide A, et al. Epidemiology of autism spectrum disorder in Portugal: prevalence, clinical characterization, and medical conditions. Dev Med Child Neurol 49(10): 726-33, 2007.

Oliveira G, Diogo L, et al. Mitochondrial dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders: a population-based study. Dev Med Child Neurol 47(3): 185-9, 2005.

Palmieri L, et al. Altered calcium homeostasis in autism-spectrum disorders: evidence from biochemical and genetic studies of the mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier AGC1. Mol Psychiatry. 2010 Jan;15(1):38-52.

Palmieri L, Persico AM. Mitochondrial dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders: Cause or effect? Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010 May.

Poling JS, et al. Developmental regression and mitochondrial dysfunction in a child with autism. J Child Neurol 21(2): 170-2, 2006.

Pons R, Andreu AL, et al. Mitochondrial DNA abnormalities and autistic spectrum disorders. J Pediatr 144(1): 81-5, 2004.

Rose S, Bennuri SC, Murray KF, Buie T, Winter H, Frye RE. Mitochondrial dysfunction in the gastrointestinal mucosa of children with autism: A blinded case-control study. PLoS One. 2017;12(10):e0186377. Published 2017 Oct 13. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0186377

Rose S, Bennuri SC, Wynne R, Melnyk S, James SJ, Frye RE. Mitochondrial and redox abnormalities in autism lymphoblastoid cells: a sibling control study. FASEB J. 2017;31(3):904-909. doi:10.1096/fj.201601004R

Rossignol DA, Bradstreet JJ. Evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in autism and implications for treatment. A J Biochem Biotechnol 4(2): 208-217, 2008.

Rossignol DA, Frye RE. Mitochondrial dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mol Psychiatry. 2011 Jan 25.

Rossignol DA, Frye RE. A review of research trends in physiological abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders: immune dysregulation, inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and environmental toxicant exposures. Molecular Psychiatry (2012) 17, 389–401.

Segurado R, Conroy J, et al. Confirmation of association between autism and the mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier SLC25A12 gene on chromosome 2q31. Am J Psychiatry 162(11): 2182-4, 2005.

Shoffner J, et al. Fever Plus Mitochondrial Disease Could Be Risk Factors for Autistic Regression. J Child Neurol. 2009 Sep 22.

Silverman JM, Buxbaum JD, et al. Autism-related routines and rituals associated with a mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier SLC25A12 polymorphism. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet, 2007.

Singh K, Singh IN, Diggins E, et al. Developmental regression and mitochondrial function in children with autism. Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2020;7(5):683-694. doi:10.1002/acn3.51034

Smith M, Spence MA, Flodman P. Nuclear and mitochondrial genome defects in autisms. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1151:102–132, 2009.

Szoko N, McShane AJ, Natowicz MR. Proteomic explorations of autism spectrum disorder. Autism Res. 2017;10(9):1460-1469. doi:10.1002/aur.1803

Smith AM, Natowicz MR, Braas D, et al. A Metabolomics Approach to Screening for Autism Risk in the Children’s Autism Metabolome Project [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 18]. Autism Res. 2020;10.1002/aur.2330. doi:10.1002/aur.2330

Trushina E, McMurray CT. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases. Neuroscience 145(4): 1233-48, 2007.

Tsao CY, Mendell JR. Autistic disorder in 2 children with mitochondrial disorders. J Child Neurol 2007: 22(9): 1121-3.

Vargason T, Howsmon DP, Melnyk S, James SJ, Hahn J. Mathematical modeling of the methionine cycle and transsulfuration pathway in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. J Theor Biol. 2017;416:28-37. doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2016.12.021

Vargason T, Kruger U, McGuinness DL, et al. Investigating Plasma Amino Acids for Differentiating Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Peers. Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2018;50:60-72. doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2018.03.004

Weissman JR, et al. Mitochondrial disease in autism spectrum disorder patients: a cohort analysis. PLoS ONE. 2008;3(11):e3815.

MICROBIOME | Back to Index

Adams JB, Borody TJ, Kang DW, Khoruts A, Krajmalnik-Brown R, Sadowsky MJ. Microbiota transplant therapy and autism: lessons for the clinic. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019;13(11):1033-1037. doi:10.1080/17474124.2019.1687293

Ding HT, Taur Y, Walkup JT. Gut Microbiota and Autism: Key Concepts and Findings. J Autism Dev Disord. 2017;47(2):480-489. doi:10.1007/s10803-016-2960-9

Fattorusso A, Di Genova L, Dell’Isola GB, Mencaroni E, Esposito S. Autism Spectrum Disorders and the Gut Microbiota. Nutrients. 2019;11(3):521. Published 2019 Feb 28. doi:10.3390/nu11030521

Kang DW, Adams JB, Coleman DM, et al. Long-term benefit of Microbiota Transfer Therapy on autism symptoms and gut microbiota. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):5821. Published 2019 Apr 9. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-42183-0

Kang DW, Adams JB, Gregory AC, et al. Microbiota Transfer Therapy alters gut ecosystem and improves gastrointestinal and autism symptoms: an open-label study. Microbiome. 2017;5(1):10. Published 2017 Jan 23. doi:10.1186/s40168-016-0225-7

Kang DW, Ilhan ZE, Isern NG, et al. Differences in fecal microbial metabolites and microbiota of children with autism spectrum disorders. Anaerobe. 2018;49:121-131. doi:10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.12.007

Kushak RI, Winter HS, Buie TM, Cox SB, Phillips CD, Ward NL. Analysis of the Duodenal Microbiome in Autistic Individuals: Association With Carbohydrate Digestion. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017;64(5):e110-e116. doi:10.1097/MPG.0000000000001458

Hughes HK, Ashwood P. Anti-Candida albicans IgG Antibodies in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders. Front Psychiatry. 2018;9:627. Published 2018 Nov 26. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00627

Hughes HK, Rose D, Ashwood P. The Gut Microbiota and Dysbiosis in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2018;18(11):81. Published 2018 Sep 24. doi:10.1007/s11910-018-0887-6

Rose DR, Yang H, Serena G, et al. Differential immune responses and microbiota profiles in children with autism spectrum disorders and co-morbid gastrointestinal symptoms. Brain Behav Immun. 2018;70:354-368. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2018.03.025

Slattery J, MacFabe DF, Frye RE. The Significance of the Enteric Microbiome on the Development of Childhood Disease: A Review of Prebiotic and Probiotic Therapies in Disorders of Childhood. Clin Med Insights Pediatr. 2016;10:91-107. Published 2016 Oct 9. doi:10.4137/CMPed.S38338

Slattery J, MacFabe DF, Kahler SG, Frye RE. Enteric Ecosystem Disruption in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Can the Microbiota and Macrobiota be Restored?. Curr Pharm Des. 2016;22(40):6107-6121. doi:10.2174/1381612822666160905123953


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Andari E, Duhamel JR, Zalla T, Herbrecht E, Leboyer M, Sirigu A. Promoting social behavior with oxytocin in high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Mar 2;107(9):4389-94.

Anderson MP, Hooker BS, Herbert MR. Bridging from Cells to Cognition in Autism Pathophysiology: Biological Pathways to Defective Brain Function and Plasticity. Am J Biochem Biotechnol 4(2): 167-176, 2008

Antoine MW, Langberg T, Schnepel P, Feldman DE. Increased Excitation-Inhibition Ratio Stabilizes Synapse and Circuit Excitability in Four Autism Mouse Models. Neuron. 2019;101(4):648-661.e4. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2018.12.026

Bauman ML, Kemper TL. Neuroanatomic observations of the brain in autism: a review and future directions. Int J Dev Neurosci 2005; 23:18

Bent S, Bertoglio K, Ashwood P, Nemeth E, Hendren RL. Brief Report: Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT) in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Clinical Trial. J Autism Dev Disord. 2011 Aug 5

Buckner RL, Krienen FM, Castellanos A, Diaz JC, Yeo BT. The organization of the human cerebellum estimated by intrinsic functional connectivity. J Neurophysiol. 2011;106(5):2322-2345. doi:10.1152/jn.00339.2011

Casanova MF, Shaban M, Ghazal M, et al. Effects of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Therapy on Evoked and Induced Gamma Oscillations in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Brain Sci. 2020;10(7):E423. Published 2020 Jul 3. doi:10.3390/brainsci10070423

Chen B, Linke A, Olson L, et al. Greater functional connectivity between sensory networks is related to symptom severity in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder [published online ahead of print, 2020 May 26]. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2020;10.1111/jcpp.13268. doi:10.1111/jcpp.13268

Corbett BA, Mendoza S, et al. Cortisol circadian rhythms and response to stress in children with autism. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2006: 31(1): 59-68

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McGinnis WR. Could oxidative stress from psychosocial stress affect neurodevelopment in autism? J Autism Dev Disord 2007: 37(5): 993-4.

McGinnis WR,et al. Discerning the Mauve factor, Part 1&2. Altern Ther Health Med. 2008 Mar-Apr&May-Jun;14(3):56-62.

Miller DM, Woods JS. Urinary porphyrins as biological indicators of oxidative stress in the kidney. Interaction of mercury and cephaloridine. Biochem Pharmacol 1993: 46(12): 2235-41.

Ming X, Stein TP, Brimacombe M, Johnson WG, Lambert GH, Wagner GC. Increased excretion of a lipid peroxidation biomarker in autism. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2005 Nov;73(5):379-84.

Ming X, et al. Evidence of Oxidative Stress in Autism Derived from Animal Models. Am J Biochem Biotechnol 4(2): 218-225, 2008.

Mostafa GA, et al. Oxidative stress in Egyptian children with autism: relation to autoimmunity. J Neuroimmunol. 2010 Feb 26;219(1-2):114-8.

Ng F, Berk M, et al. Oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders: evidence base and therapeutic implications. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2008.

Pasca SP, Nemes B, et al. High levels of homocysteine and low serum paraoxonase 1 arylesterase activity in children with autism. Life Sci 2006: 78(19): 2244-8.

Rose S, Bennuri SC, Davis JE, et al. Butyrate enhances mitochondrial function during oxidative stress in cell lines from boys with autism. Transl Psychiatry. 2018;8(1):42. Published 2018 Feb 2. doi:10.1038/s41398-017-0089-z

Ross M. A. Could oxidative stress be a factor in neurodevelopmental disorders? Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2000: 63(1-2): 61-3.

Rossignol DA, Rossignol LW. The effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on oxidative stress, inflammation, and symptoms in children with autism: an open-label pilot study. BMC Pediatr 2007: 7(1): 36.

Sajdel-Sulkowska EM, Lipinski B, et al. Oxidative stress in autism: elevated cerebellar 3-nitrotyrosine levels. Am J Biochem Biotechnol 2008: 4(2): 73-84.

Sajdel-Sulkowska EM, Xu M, McGinnis W, Koibuchi N. Brain Region-Specific Changes in Oxidative Stress and Neurotrophin Levels in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Cerebellum. 2010 Oct 22.

Sajdel-Sulkowska EM, et a. Increase in Cerebellar Neurotrophin-3 and Oxidative Stress Markers in Autism. Cerebellum. 2009 Apr 9.

Sokol DK, Chen D, et al. High levels of Alzheimer beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) in children with severely autistic behavior and aggression. J Child Neurol 2006: 21(6): 444-9.

Suh JH, Walsh WJ, et al. Altered sulfur amino acid metabolism in immune cells of children diagnosed with autism. Am J Biochem Biotechnol 2008: 4(2): 105-113.

Tchantchou F, Graves M, Shea TB. Expression and activity of methionine cycle genes are altered following folate and vitamin E deficiency under oxidative challenge: modulation by apolipoprotein E-deficiency. Nutr Neurosci. 2006 Feb-Apr;9(1-2):17-24.

Torsdottir G, Hreidarsson S, et al. Ceruloplasmin, superoxide dismutase and copper in autistic patients. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2005: 96(2): 146-8.

Yao Y, Walsh WJ, et al. Altered vascular phenotype in autism: correlation with oxidative stress. Arch Neurol 2006: 63(8): 1161-4.

Yorbik O, Sayal A, Akay C, Akbiyik DI, Sohmen T. Investigation of antioxidant enzymes in children with autistic disorder. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2002 Nov;67(5):341-3.

Zoroglu SS, Armutcu F, et al. Increased oxidative stress and altered activities of erythrocyte free radical scavenging enzymes in autism. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2004: 254(3): 143-7.

PRENATAL | Back to Index

Abbott PW, Gumusoglu SB, Bittle J, Beversdorf DQ, Stevens HE. Prenatal stress and genetic risk: How prenatal stress interacts with genetics to alter risk for psychiatric illness. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2018;90:9-21. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2018.01.019

Atladóttir HO, Thorsen P, Ostergaard L, Schendel DE, Lemcke S, Abdallah M, Parner ET. Maternal Infection Requiring Hospitalization During Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2010 Apr 23.

Bai D, Marrus N, Yip BHK, Reichenberg A, Constantino JN, Sandin S. Inherited Risk for Autism Through Maternal and Paternal Lineage [published online ahead of print, 2020 Apr 2]. Biol Psychiatry. 2020;S0006-3223(20)31384-6. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2020.03.013

Beversdorf DQ, Stevens HE, Jones KL. Prenatal Stress, Maternal Immune Dysregulation, and Their Association With Autism Spectrum Disorders. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2018;20(9):76. Published 2018 Aug 9. doi:10.1007/s11920-018-0945-4

Bonnet-Brilhault F, Rajerison TA, Paillet C, et al. Autism is a prenatal disorder: Evidence from late gestation brain overgrowth. Autism Res. 2018;11(12):1635-1642. doi:10.1002/aur.2036

Brown HK, Ray JG, Wilton AS, Lunsky Y, Gomes T, Vigod SN. Association Between Serotonergic Antidepressant Use During Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children. JAMA. 2017;317(15):1544-1552. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.3415

Edmiston E, Jones KL, Vu T, Ashwood P, Van de Water J. Identification of the antigenic epitopes of maternal autoantibodies in autism spectrum disorders. Brain Behav Immun. 2018;69:399-407. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2017.12.014

Fox-Edmiston E, Van de Water J. Maternal Anti-Fetal Brain IgG Autoantibodies and Autism Spectrum Disorder: Current Knowledge and its Implications for Potential Therapeutics. CNS Drugs. 2015;29(9):715-724. doi:10.1007/s40263-015-0279-2

Grether JK, Ashwood P, Van de Water J, et al. Prenatal and Newborn Immunoglobulin Levels from Mother-Child Pairs and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Front Neurosci. 2016;10:218. Published 2016 May 18. doi:10.3389/fnins.2016.00218

Martínez-Cerdeño V, Camacho J, Fox E, et al. Prenatal Exposure to Autism-Specific Maternal Autoantibodies Alters Proliferation of Cortical Neural Precursor Cells, Enlarges Brain, and Increases Neuronal Size in Adult Animals. Cereb Cortex. 2016;26(1):374-383. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhu291

Smith ZZ, Kubiak RA, Arnold MR, et al. Effects of immunization with heat-killed Mycobacterium vaccae on autism spectrum disorder-like behavior and epileptogenesis in a rat model of comorbid autism and epilepsy. Brain Behav Immun. 2020;88:763-780. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.034

Sjaarda CP, Hecht P, McNaughton AJM, et al. Interplay between maternal Slc6a4 mutation and prenatal stress: a possible mechanism for autistic behavior development. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):8735. Published 2017 Aug 18. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-07405-3

Vogel Ciernia A, Careaga M, LaSalle JM, Ashwood P. Microglia from offspring of dams with allergic asthma exhibit epigenomic alterations in genes dysregulated in autism. Glia. 2018;66(3):505-521. doi:10.1002/glia.23261

PREVALENCE | Back to Index

ADDM; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders – Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, United States, 2006. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2009 Dec 18;58(10):1-20.

Baio J, Wiggins L, Christensen DL, et al. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years – Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2014 [published correction appears in MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 May 18;67(19):564] [published correction appears in MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Nov 16;67(45):1280]. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2018;67(6):1-23. Published 2018 Apr 27. doi:10.15585/mmwr.ss6706a1

Baird G, et al. Prevalence of disorders of the autism spectrum in a population cohort of children in South Thames: the Special Needs and Autism Project (SNAP). Lancet. 2006 Jul 15; 368(9531):210-5.

Barbaresi WJ, Katusic SK, Colligan RC, Weaver AL, Jacobsen SJ. The incidence of autism in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1976-1997: results from a population-based study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005 Jan;159(1):37-44.

Bertrand J, et al. Prevalence of autism in a United States population: the Brick township, NJ, investigation. Pediatrics 2001; 108.

Blaxill MF, Baskin DS, Spitzer WO. Blaxill, Baskin, and Spitzer on Croen et al. (2002), The changing prevalence of autism in California. J Autism Dev Disord. 2003 Apr;33(2):223-6; discussion 227-9.

Byrd, Robert. MIND Institute. Report to the Legislature on the Principle Findings from The Epidemiology of Autism in California: A Compre-hensive Pilot Study. UC Davis 17 Oct 2002.

California Department of Developmental Services “Changes in the Population of Persons with Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders in California’s Developmental Services System: 1987 through 1998.” Report to the Legislature March 1, 1999:1-19.

Croen L, et al. The changing prevalence of autism in California. J Autism Dev Disord. 2002 Jun;32(3):207-15.

Croen LA, Grether JK. A Response to Blaxill, Baskin, and Spitzer on Croen et al. (2002), “The Changing Prevalence of Autism in California.” J Autism Dev Disord, vol 33 April 2003, pp227-229(3).

Hertz-Piccioto I, Delwiche L. The rise in autism and the role of age at diagnosis. Epidemiology. 2009 Jan; 20(1): 84-90.

Honda H, Shimizu Y, Imai M, Nitto Y. Cumulative incidence of childhood autism: a total population study of better accuracy and precision. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2005 Jan;47(1):10-8.

Kadesjo B, Gillberg C, Hagberg B. Brief report: autism and Asperger syndrome in seven-year-old children: a total population study. J Autism Dev Disord. 1999 Aug;29(4):327-31.

Kogan MD, Vladutiu CJ, Schieve LA, et al. The Prevalence of Parent-Reported Autism Spectrum Disorder Among US Children. Pediatrics. 2018;142(6):e20174161. doi:10.1542/peds.2017-4161

Lauritsen MB, Pedersen CB, Mortensen PB. The incidence and prevalence of pervasive developmental disorders: a Danish population-based study. Psychol Med. 2004 Oct;34(7):1339-46.

Lotter V.; Epidemiology of autistic conditions in young children. I. Prevalence. Soc. Psychiatry 1966, 1; 124-137.

Smeeth L, Cook C, Fombonne PE, Heavey L, Rodrigues LC, Smith PG, Hall AJ. Rate of first recorded diagnosis of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders in a United Kingdom general practice 1988 to 2001. BMC Med. 2004 Nov 9;2:39.

Xu G, Strathearn L, Liu B, et al. Prevalence and Treatment Patterns of Autism Spectrum Disorder in the United States, 2016. JAMA Pediatr. 2019;173(2):153-159. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.4208

Yeargin-Allsopp M, et al. Prevalence of autism in a US metropolitan area. JAMA 2003 Jan 1;289(1)49-55.

RISK FACTORS | Back to Index

An JY, Lin K, Zhu L, et al. Genome-wide de novo risk score implicates promoter variation in autism spectrum disorder. Science. 2018;362(6420):eaat6576. doi:10.1126/science.aat6576

Bai D, Yip BHK, Windham GC, et al. Association of Genetic and Environmental Factors With Autism in a 5-Country Cohort [published online ahead of print, 2019 Jul 17]. JAMA Psychiatry. 2019;76(10):1035-1043. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.1411

Castel SE, Cervera A, Mohammadi P, et al. Modified penetrance of coding variants by cis-regulatory variation contributes to disease risk. Nat Genet. 2018;50(9):1327-1334. doi:10.1038/s41588-018-0192-y

Gandal MJ, Zhang P, Hadjimichael E, et al. Transcriptome-wide isoform-level dysregulation in ASD, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Science. 2018;362(6420):eaat8127. doi:10.1126/science.aat8127

Grove J, Ripke S, Als TD, et al. Identification of common genetic risk variants for autism spectrum disorder. Nat Genet. 2019;51(3):431-444. doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0344-8

Hazlett HC, Gu H, Munsell BC, et al. Early brain development in infants at high risk for autism spectrum disorder. Nature. 2017;542(7641):348-351. doi:10.1038/nature21369

Li M, Santpere G, Imamura Kawasawa Y, et al. Integrative functional genomic analysis of human brain development and neuropsychiatric risks. Science. 2018;362(6420):eaat7615. doi:10.1126/science.aat7615

Krupp DR, Barnard RA, Duffourd Y, et al. Exonic Mosaic Mutations Contribute Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder. Am J Hum Genet. 2017;101(3):369-390. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.07.016

Matelski L, Van de Water J. Risk factors in autism: Thinking outside the brain. J Autoimmun. 2016;67:1-7. doi:10.1016/j.jaut.2015.11.003

Sandin S, Lichtenstein P, Kuja-Halkola R, Hultman C, Larsson H, Reichenberg A. The Heritability of Autism Spectrum Disorder. JAMA. 2017;318(12):1182-1184. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.12141

Bangerter A, Chatterjee M, Manyakov NV, et al. Relationship Between Sleep and Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Exploring the Impact of Sleep Variability. Front Neurosci. 2020;14:211. Published 2020 Mar 24. doi:10.3389/fnins.2020.00211

Tilford JM, Payakachat N, Kuhlthau KA, et al. Treatment for Sleep Problems in Children with Autism and Caregiver Spillover Effects. J Autism Dev Disord. 2015;45(11):3613-3623. doi:10.1007/s10803-015-2507-5


Adams JB, Borody TJ, Kang DW, Khoruts A, Krajmalnik-Brown R, Sadowsky MJ. Microbiota transplant therapy and autism: lessons for the clinic. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019;13(11):1033-1037. doi:10.1080/17474124.2019.1687293

Ding HT, Taur Y, Walkup JT. Gut Microbiota and Autism: Key Concepts and Findings. J Autism Dev Disord. 2017;47(2):480-489. doi:10.1007/s10803-016-2960-9

Fattorusso A, Di Genova L, Dell’Isola GB, Mencaroni E, Esposito S. Autism Spectrum Disorders and the Gut Microbiota. Nutrients. 2019;11(3):521. Published 2019 Feb 28. doi:10.3390/nu11030521

Hughes HK, Ashwood P. Anti-Candida albicans IgG Antibodies in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders. Front Psychiatry. 2018;9:627. Published 2018 Nov 26. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00627

Hughes HK, Rose D, Ashwood P. The Gut Microbiota and Dysbiosis in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2018;18(11):81. Published 2018 Sep 24. doi:10.1007/s11910-018-0887-6

Kang DW, Adams JB, Coleman DM, et al. Long-term benefit of Microbiota Transfer Therapy on autism symptoms and gut microbiota. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):5821. Published 2019 Apr 9. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-42183-0

Kang DW, Adams JB, Gregory AC, et al. Microbiota Transfer Therapy alters gut ecosystem and improves gastrointestinal and autism symptoms: an open-label study. Microbiome. 2017;5(1):10. Published 2017 Jan 23. doi:10.1186/s40168-016-0225-7

Kang DW, Ilhan ZE, Isern NG, et al. Differences in fecal microbial metabolites and microbiota of children with autism spectrum disorders. Anaerobe. 2018;49:121-131. doi:10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.12.007

Kushak RI, Winter HS, Buie TM, Cox SB, Phillips CD, Ward NL. Analysis of the Duodenal Microbiome in Autistic Individuals: Association With Carbohydrate Digestion. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017;64(5):e110-e116. doi:10.1097/MPG.0000000000001458

Rose DR, Yang H, Serena G, et al. Differential immune responses and microbiota profiles in children with autism spectrum disorders and co-morbid gastrointestinal symptoms. Brain Behav Immun. 2018;70:354-368. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2018.03.025

Slattery J, MacFabe DF, Frye RE. The Significance of the Enteric Microbiome on the Development of Childhood Disease: A Review of Prebiotic and Probiotic Therapies in Disorders of Childhood. Clin Med Insights Pediatr. 2016;10:91-107. Published 2016 Oct 9. doi:10.4137/CMPed.S38338

Slattery J, MacFabe DF, Kahler SG, Frye RE. Enteric Ecosystem Disruption in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Can the Microbiota and Macrobiota be Restored?. Curr Pharm Des. 2016;22(40):6107-6121. doi:10.2174/1381612822666160905123953